A Gold Fringe Infringement on the American Flag?!

During our District Roundtable last month, one of the Staff members shared his perspective about gold fringe on the flag of the United States with a term I had never heard before: “Admiralty Law”.  He gave very stern instructions to remove any American flag from our units with this gold fringe, because of what he said it stands for (no nation, no constitution). 

Huh?? …our Troop uses a flag like this!!  It was purchased long before I was ever asked to be the Scoutmaster.  The first time I saw it, I remember thinking how beautifully decorated this flag was – a fancy embellishment for special occasions, like a Pack Meeting or Court of Honor.  That gold fringe never once crossed my mind as being any kind of violation of this great country, our Constitution or any United States Code.  So this information came as a surprise to me and caused some confusion and concern.

I immediately started looking into our alleged “infringement”.  WOW!!  Are there ever a lot of differing opinions, false quotes and misguided interpretations about the meaning of gold fringe on an American flag!  As my research continued, I found nothing specifically declared about fringe of any color in the U.S. Code yet I really wanted an authoritative source to give a definitive statement about this issue.

My efforts did find several web pages that referenced the U.S. Army’s Institute of Heraldry as the official custodian of our Flag’s design.  While the answer to this falsehood is not found on TIOH’s Frequently Asked Questions, their reply to an email I sent stated:

Gold fringe is used on the National flag as an honorable enrichment only.  It is not regarded as an integral part of the flag and its use does not constitute an unauthorized addition to the design prescribed by statutes. 

Records of the Department of the Army indicate that fringe was used on the National flag as early as 1835 and its official use by the Army dates from 1895.  There is no record of an Act of Congress or Executive Order which either prescribes or prohibits the addition of fringe, nor is there any indication that any symbolism was ever associated with it.  The use of fringe is optional with the person or organization displaying the flag.

Furthermore, a 1925 Attorney General’s Opinion (34 Op Atty. Gen 483) states:

The fringe does not appear to be regarded as an integral part of the Flag, and its presence cannot be said to constitute an unauthorized addition to the design prescribed by statute. An external fringe is to be distinguished from letters, words, or emblematic designs printed or superimposed upon the body of the flag itself.  Under law, such additions might be open to objection as unauthorized; but the same is not necessarily true of the fringe.

The US Army Institute of Heraldry added in their email response:

It is customary to place gold fringe on silken (rayon-silk-nylon) National flags that are carried in parades, used in official ceremonies, and displayed in offices, merely to enhance the beauty of the flag.  The use of fringe is not restricted to the Federal Government.  Such flags are used and displayed by our Armed Forces, veterans, civic and civilian organizations and private individuals.  However, it is the custom not to use fringe on flags displayed from stationary flagpoles and, traditionally, fringe has not been used on internment flags.

Honestly, I would like TIOH’s FAQ to clearly affirm that fringe is considered completely within the guidelines of proper flag etiquette.  Wouldn’t that put to rest all of this debate?  Unfortunately, the email I received from a Program Analyst at TIOH informed me that:

We do not include this information on our website because we no longer answer questions on the US Flag for civilians – only the official use by the Army which is covered in our regulations.

Not sure why this regulation was made.  Without a formal AND public statement from the official office responsible for the design of this National symbol, it kinda makes this dispute tough to argue…doesn’t it?

In any case, here are numerous court decisions that also reject this idea of a gold fringe infringement.  I’m sure there will remain naysayers even after all this proof.  For me, I’ve spent enough time digging into the subject and got what I needed to support my original belief: there is no symbolic meaning here at all.  So with that, we are keeping our gold-fringed flag and will so proudly hail it, one nation under God, indivisible, with libert and justice for all!

NOTE: There are several websites out there referencing a book that supposedly debunks the myth of gold fringe.  It’s called So Proudly We Hail, The History of the United States Flag by Rear Admiral William Furlong and Commodore Byron McCandless, published by the Smithsonian Institute Press in 1981.  Unfortunately, I have combed through those pages FOUR times and can NOT find anything that makes any mention of gold fringe.  That’s too bad too since the cover flap of this book reads:

“A richly illustrated history of the American flag, So Proudly We Hail weaves the facinating and definitive story of the country’s central symbol from colonization to the present.

Written by Rear Admiral William Rea Furlong, designer of the new star arrangement when the 49th and 50th stars were added to the flag and, Commodore McCandless, a consultant to three presidents on flag protocol, this book is eminenty readable as well as authoritative.

So Proudly We Hail is the first broadly researched history of the United States flag that includes both historical and technological information, and becomes the most up-to-date account of the history of our nation’s flag.  It will stand as the definitive reference book on this subject for many years to come.”

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32 Responses to A Gold Fringe Infringement on the American Flag?!

  1. george says:

    so it don’t mean the army or any other branch takes control. i hear all kinds of thing about this.

  2. Michael Thomas says:

    Lol, all lies. Gold or yellow fringed flag is a military flag. I know for a fact. I got caught with 13 pounds of grass n all thrown out cuz of this matter.

    • diggy says:

      Impressive that some people figure out how to remove themselves from the authority/power of those under the “gold fringe US flag”. KUDO’s & there’re a lot of people who do as you mention here! I have not but I’ve just researched trying to understand this; The LAWs for the US & State Flags is a serious one that has pages of legal requirements concerning EVERY facet of using flags. Moreover, no government agency can add anything to any legal flag(s) flying over any American territory ~ it’s so strictly controlled yet in my searches all those top results were ones that claimed that gold fringe means nothing, suggesting it was just an artsy addition b/c of their style…or BS like that. Unfortunately I had to wade thru all that to finally see that a gold fringe flag isn’t artsy & no changes can be legally made w/o it being authorized so you’re correct about their meaning & you learned how to avoid their authority. I know this is true but do you have a “link(s)” that I can learn it? I only ask because I don’t have enough time to dig right now & you’ve already stripped the bad sites, I mean you know the best place to get truthful information. Thanks for sharing this post & I hope this finds you well.

  3. Essal says:

    Here’s another example of misunderstanding “Admiral Law, you under not under the jurisdiction of common law, which is the constitution of the U.S.”

    WTF does that even mean? LOL. Again, the Constitution means the Property of the Federal Government. So the above makes no sense at all.

  4. Cryst El says:

    Look at the word “infringe”. Why are they infringing on the Flag? Nothing is without meaning. As, far as conspiracy theorist they are not conspiring on something that is right in your face. Some will learn and some wont. It is a subliminal message that they hope we catch onto. That’s why when you say your constitutional rights are being violated in the court with the “infringed” flag it is ignored. There are always two sides to a coin.

    • Mike Rossander says:

      Despite their apparent similarity in English, “infringe” and “fringe” come from entirely different roots and have entirely different meanings.
      – Infringe comes from the Latin “infringere” meaning to damage, break off, break or bruise.
      – Fringe comes from the Latin “frimbia” which was a metathesis of “fimbriae” meaning fibers, threads or fringe.

      So, no, there is no subliminal message here. Just a coincidence based on the truly screwy evolution of the English language.

  5. James d sleep says:

    If anyone doubts the admiralty gold fringe theory and doesn’t believe it distinguishes “law of the sea” , go to google maps and zoom in on the Miami Florida courthouse!
    Tell me what you see …..
    People need to open your eyes and see where this country is headed

  6. Joe Garney says:

    It’s a flag that marks a warning – the area you are entering is a military jurisdiction. You are guilty until proven innocent – the law of the sea (Admiralty Law). President, Dwight David Eisenhower signed Executive Order No.10834 on August 21, 1959 and had printed in the Federal Register at 24 F.R. 6865, pursuant to the law, stated that: “A military flag is a flag that resembles the regular flag of the United States, except that it has a yellow fringe border on three sides.” http://www.unexplainable.net/info-theories/the_shocking_secret_about_court_room_flags_-_it_s_a_warning.php

    • Kiwi-ian says:

      It’s funny, but I followed your link to the Federal Register at 24 F.R. 6865 to find out what Executive Order No.10834 actually says and it mentions “fringe” not at all and “military” only once (and in another context). Perhaps you should read the EO before commenting on it. While you are at it, please read

      – US Code Title 4, the actual law on the flag. It does not mention the fringe as being military nor ban it it from civilian use.

      – the Marine Corps Flag Manual Sect D Art 2a where “The use of fringe on national colors or standards within the Marine Corps is prohibited”

      – Army Regulations 840-10 which explicitly state that a fringe is “used on flags for enrichment only. It is not regarded as an integral part of any flag and its use does not constitute an unauthorized addition to the design prescribed by statutes” .

      You should also brush up on the protocols for the use of flags. A flag may indicate or advertise a pre-existing status but cannot change the status in itself.

      Finally, many (most) other countries do not have flags in their courts, for instance in New Zealand (and the UK) we have a board with the national coat of arms.

  7. johnny killroy says:

    It’s funny how a sheeple, that aren’t use to overstanding anything, discerns truth. The Army gave it to you but you failed to see it. The verbiage is: ” However, it is the custom not to use fringe on flags displayed from stationary flagpoles and, traditionally, fringe has not been used on internment flags.”

    That means don’t do this in a court of law or any other official office where you have the flag on display. So what does it mean when you are in a court of law?

    Admiral Law, you under not under the jurisdiction of common law, which is the constitution of the U.S.

    This guy isn’t any closer to finding the truth, then when he set out to ?

    The US Army Institute of Heraldry added in their email response:

    It is customary to place gold fringe on silken (rayon-silk-nylon) National flags that are carried in parades, used in official ceremonies, and displayed in offices, merely to enhance the beauty of the flag. The use of fringe is not restricted to the Federal Government. Such flags are used and displayed by our Armed Forces, veterans, civic and civilian organizations and private individuals. However, it is the custom not to use fringe on flags displayed from stationary flagpoles and, traditionally, fringe has not been used on internment flags.

    • Scoutmaster says:

      I think it’s funny how conspiracy theorists make things bigger than they really are. Let me see if I can discern truth by breaking it down:

      stationary = not moving, staying in one place or position
      stationary flagpole = a flagpole this is stationed in place to not move, typically positioned outside in the open

      Not hard to see why it would not be the custom to fly a decorative indoor flag on outdoor “stationary flagpoles”. CHECK

      internment = the act of putting a person in prison or other kind of detention, generally in wartime
      internment flag = the traditional casket flag, the one used to drape caskets or accompany the urn of a deceased Veteran who served honorably in the U.S. Armed Forces.

      Again, not hard to see why this would also not be the custom to use any kind of decorative fringe on “internment flags”. CHECK

      So I still don’t see how this verbiage has anything to do with its use in a court of law or any other official office where you might have this decorative flag on display. CHECK

    • Michael Pierotti says:

      (g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any nature.

    • frontncenter says:

      That is absolutely ridiculous. Those theories are popularized by idiocy, such as that of the Sovereign Citizen movement. The fringe has nothing to do with the Military or Article III Courts, or any Court for that matter.

      The fringe is representative of the specific Office of Presidency. There are 3 offices. The President of the United States and President of the United States of America are not the Office of President under Article VI.

      Whenever a President is acting in the Office of President of the United States, the flag has a gold fringe. If he is acting President of the United States of America, the fringe is not displayed. When a foreign dignitary visits the White House and their flag is on display, Old Glory is displayed, un-fringed.

      The “President of the United States of America” is a President Elect by the Electoral College under Articles of Confederation, requiring no oath of office. The “President of the United States” takes oath under Article II of the Constitution. Everything the Constitution has to say about the “President of the United States” is found in Article I, except Article II oath. Everything it has say about the “President of the United States of America” and “Office of President” is found in Article II, except Article VI oath.

      The “Office of President” requires an oath of office under Article VI, which no President to date has ever done. The reasons are far to complicated to get into here, but Washington set precedence so he could have the power to tax & jail tax opposers.

      He & Hamilton devised a scheme to enrich themselves and their masonic cronies. All one needs to do is carefully read the aforementioned documents.

      The problem with Sovereign Citizens, they are too lazy to read or understand everything, so they read pieces and/or make up and/or misunderstand what they read. Others blindly repeat the idiocy without ever researching the facts. The other problem is people will only read pieces of statutes in parts of codes without reading the laws in whole. Or read Judicial opinions without reading the case as whole.

      What I stated above regarding the fringe is absolute. Although to be fair, it’s not simple to find or widely taught. The reasons become obvious if you take time research the above. Those who believe the Constitution sets out their rights and freedoms are ignorant of both. Read it!

      “WE THE PEOPLE” not “YOU THE PEOPLE” …as in, THE PEOPLE of the STATE of (“your state”) vs. IGNORANT CITIZEN, et al. case# 12345

      • Mike says:

        frontncenter is right that the fringe has nothing to do with the Military or the Article III courts but it also has nothing at all to do with the Office of the President. Read the Flag Code. The fringe is an optional honorific. Anyone may display a flag with fringe (though there are some practical reasons why you sometimes should not – see below).

        • Essal says:

          While you, Mike, are right, you are wrong about the 1 thing. frontncenter was absolutely right.
          It does have to do with the offices of President. What you and others don’t seem to get is that it isn’t under some legislative enactment. The flag code is separate from what frontncenter spoke of.

          Yes the Fringe is honorific, but that option is held specifically in honor of representation, That is why the flag is un-fringed in the White House when representatives of other countries/nations are on American soil.

          It is the opposite when one of our representatives go to the sister White House in Scotland.

  8. Mark says:

    Welcome to the Land of the Sheeple. So many of you people are willing to gulp down all the misinformation that the government feeds you and you do it without even checking it out. Why does there need to be ornamentation on the Flag of the United States? The previous two centuries there apparently wasn’t any such ornamentation and no one seemed to be bothered by that. I spent twenty years of my life under oath to defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies foreign and domestic. And I believe in my heart that we are inundated with many domestic enemies of that very document. Even those in charge, in D.C., have derided the Constitution, stating it is an outdated document, etc. So, why is it so hard for you to see that Admiralty Law (martial law) should be the law of the land now? Much property has been seized under so-called eminent domain. E.D. is supposed to be when the seizing of property is done for the benefit of the community, but I’ve heard about land being seized and sold to casinos and such. What true community benefit is it to have a casino and attached hotel built? Now there is much property owned in the U.S. by the United Nations. Does that sound right? Why should a foreign interest have property ownership or even tell a property owner that they can’t do things on their own property, because the U.N. said so? Sheep, open your eyes! The present person occupying the White House has no problem with disregarding Constitutional law and do whatever he wants and people are just too willing to follow him, instead of standing up to him. If we were under the Constitutional Law, We the People could and would rise up and take care of this matter, but since we are under the Admiralty Law, we are powerless or at least we are lead to believe we are and what will happen is what limited freedoms we presently have will be gone and we will be as bad as those who were under Soviet dictatorship or worse. You may think I am one of those nut cases who espouses conspiracy stuff, but in my lifetime I have seen things deteriorate horribly and it continues to worsen. Kids now a days aren’t being taught true history and they are just as happy as pig in slop as long as they have their smart phones and X-boxes and such. They are like those at a magic show. They are so intent on what the right hand is doing, they don’t see the stuff being done by the left and that will continue until they realize that they are nothing more than property of the State. God help us.

    • Essal says:

      Do you know how many people swear to uphold the Constitution and know nothing about it? Most people think the Constitution of today is the same document as the Organic Constitution was. The Organic Constitution is what gave freedom and rights, but the new Constitution is not the Organic one.

      Washington & Hamilton, along with other Masonic cronies, devised a scheme to usurp power and land to a newly created secret wartime government. It required staging a surrender and altering the Articles of Confederation, which is why the Constitution was drafted in secret. People forget that Washington was a longtime Crown Loyalist, and if you know your history, Colonel of the British Armies.

      Most people can’t wrap their heads around that truth, but lest not forget that Washington was also responsible for creating the first national flag, named the “Grand Union”. He designed it. It’s really just the British East India Co. flag with its cantor turned 90 degrees (freemason’s…, right!?). He chose that flag for a reason. People think the 13 stripes represent the 13 colonies, but they actually represent the English Navy Tudor (House of Tudor). His roots; “English” His loyalty; the “Crown”, hence the 13 stripes with Union Jack cantor.

      The flag was known as the “Kings Colours” (the colors of the King) which is the reason our flag is still Red, White and Blue (the Kings colors).

      Long story short, the people were tricked into believing independence. But in reality, the United States are still part of the United Kingdom. The states are what’s known as “Crown Colonies”. The real owners of America is the Crown Temple. The People in the Constitution, “WE THE PEOPLE” are not the you and I. When you are summoned to court by the state, you are charged by the “People.” That is what ‘frontncenter’ was referring to.

      When you took an oath to defend the Constitution, you took it as upholding the ideas of the Organic Constitution (free and righteous people), but in reality, it means you swear to defend the property of the “Federal Government”. That is the trick. The Constitution of today means the property of the Federal Government and the People are akin to trustees of the States (Estates of the Crown Colonies).

      The rights and freedoms of “We The People” serves to protect the trustees, aka “The People vs Your Name” when you’re charged with a crime. The Constitution of today is all about trickery & deceit. Thanks to Washington, we live in a Federal Dictatorship, which is why they named the separate U.S. District, Washington D.C. (District of Columbia as in “British Columbia”), which is where the President resides.

      The whole thing is British. “Congress, Constitutions, Governments, all ideas & ideals of the British/English ways of life. There’s nothing American about any of it. It all comes from immigrants. Brought here by the immigrants themselves. Even the so called “American Revolution” was British (British colonists vs British Crown). The only real Americans are Native Americans.

      Patrick Henry caught on, but his warnings went unheeded. He was scoffed at and basically labeled a conspiracy theorist.

  9. charles cross says:

    anyone who thinks the fringe means nothing, knows nothing about the military. They don’t do things just because! what that reason is, I don’t know, but you can bet that there is a reason.

  10. Dennis says:

    If there is ANY question at all about using a flag with the fringe, why use it at all?
    The Flag Code specifies that no adornment must be added to the United States flag upon its surface. Then, why should it be allowed anywhere on the flag, even on its edge?

    Besides: why pay extra for a flag to have a controversial decoration on its edge, when
    having such additional adornment is a cause for controversy?

  11. Jay says:

    You people are hopelessly blind. Read a traffic ticket(contract) for Crying out loud. The only ones who don’t understand the law are you people. Why does one need to become a part of a British Club (BAR-British Accreditation Registry) to practice law in America? Why is this mandatory? Think about it. Look up what “Attorn” actualy means and realize that attorneys are not actually even Lawyers! Who do they tale an oath to? Why are they called Esquires(Title of Nobility)? Sigh

  12. Mike Jones says:

    This is one the fruitloop conspiracy theory nutcases favorite flags to wave (pun intended), just look at the drivel drooling from the slack jaws of imbeciles like Bilzer Blitzer. To compound the confusion one of their ilk modified a copy of 4USC to read that the gold fringe specifically indicates maritime admiralty law and then released the fraudulent version into the wild (internet), and that was all it took for legions of the easily manipulated to claim it as an absolute fact.

  13. Mike says:

    Thank you for pushing back against bad information. I hope you corrected the person at your next RoundTable.

    The ONLY law governing the use, display and design of the US Flag is the Flag Code. A search on that exact phrase should return several reliable copies of the Code. The Flag Code is silent on the use of fringe – it is neither required nor prohibited. (The Flag Code is also silent on the use of finials, another area with lots of misinformation.) As your research noted above, the fringe has no political, legal or other meaning. It is an optional honor.

    There are, however, some traditions about fringe that stem from practical concerns. You do not, for example, fly a fringed flag from a flagpole – the wind catches and rapidly degrades a fringed flag. For another example, you generally do not use a fringed flag for a static indoor display because it loses that “special” honor or recognition that the fringe was meant to bring. For a third example, fringed flags are never used as internment flags. Even though there is no law against it, it would be inherently confusing – is your focus in that event to honor the flag or to honor the deceased? The fringe would be a distraction in that circumstance.

    Finally, I strongly recommend against the use of a fringed flag for Cub Scouts. I say this because of the weight it adds to the flag. Webelos can handle it but when it’s the Tigers turn to bring in the flag, they really struggle. It’s also a lot harder to learn how to fold a fringed flag. Don’t set them up for failure. Let your Cubs use a plain flag.

  14. Bilzer Blitzer says:

    As a navy guy i can tell you that the color and fringe are an absolute its not a conspiracy to lay out the facts of fringe and color variations. As a matter of fact the last time i entered a california court and there were california and usa flags with blue fringe and red fringe but no gold fringe.

    not only is it important it is the comunication means of a class of overlords that eminate from masonary , the vatican state and the united nations one only needs to look in the bylaws of the united nations and the CFR transcription of the bilderburger (*actualy called olympians) to note that it is a means of heirarchy identification and station. those who lambast that its all kooks are themselves suspect. it is a game of hypnosis and diatribe used to controll masses all the while making plain thier intentions gold Amirality over the see ( the holy see) (under the angelo saxon/austriahungary administration) given by the papacy. do not doubt me additionaly during this period before the one world goverment and its transition you will find these red and blue fringed flags in your courts and county facilities as they are systematicly absorbed by fiat. blue dropping the admirality heirarchy for the rule of masonic states under the authority of decendancy of the kingship of solomon. And they shall make the ephod [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of] purple, [of] scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work. exodus says in the Torah. and it is of note the revelations says And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!

    this is the language of the iniates of babylon of icon of color of flag and fringe
    if you want to know what they are up to, look into hearlds ( shields of arms) flags, and flag colors

    just for practice look at all the red white and blue countries ,,,,notice they are all the colors of the english flag, thats not an accedent and red to represent the direct authority of papal rule

  15. Kiwi-Ian says:

    Let’s state quite categorically that the fringe on the flag is an adornment only and carries no meaning whatsoever. Those who put forward theories about martial law, admiralty law, foreign soil etc are confused (and generally don’t actually understand the law).

    US Code Title 4 defines the flag. Executive Order 10834 also defines the flag (they work together as the law on the flag, the EO allows the president to add stars etc for new states without passing a new law). Nowhere is a fringe mentioned, neither do they mention or define what a military flag is. These are public documents and can be accessed at most public libraries and on the net.

    In 1925, following comment on the use of a fringe, the Attorney General stated that the fringe was an adornment and did not in any way change the meaning of the flag. It must be said here that a little flag protocol should be understood. A fringe is added to the outside of the flag, it does not change the flag itself. If it were added inside the borders, it would “deface” the flag and possibly change the meaning. Defacing is not necessarily a bad thing. The New Zealand national flag is a British Blue Ensign defaced with 4 red stars.

    The Institute of Heraldry is an army institute (for medieval historical reasons) and defines the flag as used by the army and related forces (National Guard etc). Army Regulations 840-10 explicitly state that a fringe is “used on flags for enrichment only. It is not regarded as an integral part of any flag and its use does not constitute an unauthorized addition to the design prescribed by statutes” (copied from the Attorney General’s 1925 decision). The use of the fringe is restricted to indoors and flags carried by a bearer. Outdoor flags on a pole must not have a fringe. So the military fly both fringed and unfringed flags.

    Interestingly for those that believe that the fringe means military law, the US Marine Corps Flag Manual states “The use of fringe on national colors or standards within the Marine Corps is prohibited” (Sect D Art 2a). That is, the Marines ban the fringe on the Stars and Stripes (but not their own standard).

    Also interestingly, for those that believe that the fringe indicates Admiralty Law, no ship of the USN flies a fringed flag (though the bridge may have a fringed flag if a flag is present).

    As far as a fringed flag representing foreign soil, this is rubbish. The American flag flying over the US embassy in Paris merely indicates the pre-existing status of US sovereign territory. The US flag, fringed or not, at the American School in Paris is on sovereign French soil. Flying a French flag in your garden on Bastille Day does not render your garden French territory.

    The reason that you were having difficulties finding the meaning of the fringe is that there isn’t one to define. None of the official sources, or the protocol sources, or international heraldry institutes, say anything except that the fringe can be used for adornment. Why should they?

    To give a analogous example, nowhere does it state that wearing white boots at a barbecue doesn’t mean that you are Hindu. That’s because it doesn’t. But try and find a site that states that.

  16. Larry G, UC says:

    Good grief, first the “uniform police”, now the “flag police”, I shudder to think what might be next…

    It always seems the people with the fastest and biggest mouths are the ones who fail to double check their own “facts” before beating their shoe on a pulpit.

  17. Brian Martin says:

    Google “army color guard”. Almost every picture that comes up shows the US flag with gold fringe. If the US Army doesn’t have a problem with the fringe, then I don’t either.

    • Lord_Beavis says:

      The Army doesn’t have a problem with it and won’t make an official declaration about it because they are not the Army of the United States of America.

      Wake up sheeple!

  18. Eric says:

    Nice job with the research. It’s always a good thing, when someone says that “it is so…” to verify if it really is so. There are so many “codified traditions” out there, it’s ridiculous what some will say is the right way, without knowing why they believe it. It’s great when a tradition, right or wrong, is verified or debunked with authority (not that it will change the minds of the true believers to quote them chapter and verse).

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